Annotated references to Mount Baker volcano

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By David S. Tucker, July 2007

The following is a compilation of references from the Georef databases, personal experience, graduate theses, and reference lists taken from publications about Mount Baker. Most papers deal with volcanology and stratigraphy. There are some references to glaciation of Mount Baker. This list includes some abstracts and open-file reports that may be preliminary to later refereed publications. A few non-technical books, and some newspaper accounts, are in a separate section at the end. Please provide updates to the Mount Baker Volcano Observatory website: www.mbvo.wwu.edu.

Babcock, J.W., and Wilcox, R.E., 1977, Results of petrographic examination of samples, in Frank, D., Meier, M.F., and Swanson, D.A., 1977, Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976, p. 25

Non-magmatic ejecta from Sherman Crater fumaroles.

Baggerman, T, and DeBari, S., 2007, Petrology and geochemistry of Late Pleistocene andesite lava flows from Mt. Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4., p. 78

First REE study of Baker lavas; andesite modeling

Bockheim, J. G., and Ballard, T. M., 1973, Hydrothermal soils of the crater of Mount Baker, Washington: Northwest Science, no.46, pp.4.

Sherman Crater altered andesite, clay minerals, cristobalite, talc, sulphur, opaline silicates, zeolites

Bockheim, J. G., and Ballard, T. M., 1975, Hydrothermal soils of the crater of Mount Baker, Washington: Proceedings - Soil Science Society of America, vol.39, no.5, pp.997-1001.

Sherman Crater altered andesite, clay minerals, cristobalite, talc, sulphur, opaline silicates, zeolites

Bortleson, G. C., Wilson, R. T., 1976, Table of data on water quality of Baker Lake near Mount Baker, Washington: Open-File Report - U. S. Geological Survey, Report: OF 76-0195, 11 pp.

Baker Lake geochemistry and hydrology; environmental geology; geologic hazards

Bortleson, G. C., Wilson, R. T., and Foxworthy, B. L., 1977, Water-quality effects on Baker Lake of recent volcanic activity at Mount Baker, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1022-B, 30 pp.

Baker Lake geochemistry and hydrology; environmental geology; geologic hazards;

Brown, E.H., and 14 others, 1987, Geologic Map of the Northwest Cascades, Washington: Geological Society of America Map and Chart Series MC-61

Generalized map showing approximate extent of Mount Baker volcanic field

Burke, R., 1972, Neoglaciation of Boulder Valley, Mt Baker, Washington (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 47 p.

Partial description of Boulder Creek assemblage; 14C dates; Boulder Glacier dendrochronology

Cameron, V.J., 1989, The late Quaternary geomorphic history of the Sumas valley: (M.A. thesis): Simon Fraser University, 154 p.

Suggestion that mid-Holocene lahars traveled into Fraser River

Caplan-Auerbach, J., and Huggel, C., 2007, Seismicity associated with recurrent ice avalanches at Iliamna volcano, Alaska and Mt. Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 21.

Report on the 2006 Boulder Glacier ice-rock avalanche

Cary, C.M., Thompson, J.M.S., and Pringle, P.T., 1992, Holocene lahar deposits from Mount Baker volcano in Glacier Creek, North Cascades, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.24, no.5, pp.13.

The only report of debris flows in a northern drainage of Mount Baker

Coombs, H.A., 1939, Mount Baker, a Cascade volcano: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 50, p. 1493-1510

First modern geology of Mount Baker, including petrology

Crandell, D. R., 1975, Increased hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 975, pp.212

First publication on 1975 activity

Davidson, G., 1885, Recent volcanic activity in the United States: Eruptions of Mount Baker: Science, first series, v. 6, no. 138, p. 262.

Accumulation of journalists reports of eruptions, some spurious

Diller, J. S., 1915, The relief of our Pacific Coast: Science, v. 41, pp. 48-57

Reports of eruptions

Easterbrook, D.J., 1975, Mount Baker eruptions: Geology, v. 3, p. 679-682.

General report on Baker features, including 1975 activity

Easterbrook, D. J., 1976a, Pleistocene and Recent volcanic activity of Mount Baker, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.8, no.6, pp.849, 1976

Early report on Baker volcanic rocks and 1975 activity

Easterbrook, D.J., and Rahm, D.A., 1970, Landforms of Washington: Union Printing Co., Bellingham, Washington

Briefly mentions Sulphur Creek lava flow and the Schrieber’s Meadow cinder cone

Easterbrook, D.J., and Kovanen, D. J., 1996, Far reaching mid-Holocene lahar from Mt. Baker in the Nooksack Valley of the North Cascades, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.28, no.5, pp.64, Apr 1996

Middle Fork Nooksack lahar

Easterbrook, D.J., and Kovanen, D. J., 2000, Cyclical oscillations of Mt Baker glaciers in response to climatic changes and their correlation with periodic oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific Ocean: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, vol.32, no.7, pp.17

Photogrammetry of Baker glacier fluctuations

Easterbrook, D.J., Briggs, N.D., Westgate, J.A., and Gorton, M.P., 1981, Age of the Salmon Springs glaciation in Washington: Geology, v. 9, p. 87-93.

First account of Lake Tapps tephra, later associated with Kulshan caldera

Eichelberger, J., Keady, C. J., and Wright, D., 1975, Mt. Baker; 11 April to 1 July, 1975: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., United States; Report number EGG1183-5058, 33p.

Preliminary report of 1975 activity: aerial photography

Eichelberger, J. C., Heiken, G., Widdicombe, R., Keady, C. J., and Wright, D., 1976, Baker fumarole activity: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.87.

Composition of phreatic fragments erupted at Sherman Crater, 1975

Eichelberger, J. C., Heiken, G., Widdicombe, R., Wright, D., Keady, C. J., and Cobb, D.D., 1976, New fumarolic activity on Mount. Baker; observations during April through July, 1975: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.1, no.1, pp.35-53.

The 1975 activity, with aerial photography, geochemistry

Feeney, D. M., Linneman, S. R., 2007, Timing and nature of post-collapse sedimentation in Kulshan caldera, North Cascades, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4., p. 66

Caldera lake sedimentation

Fountain, A. G., Jackson, K., Basagic, H. J., and Sitts, D., 2007, A century of glacier change on Mount Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 67.

Advance and retreat of Baker glaciers

Frank, D., 1976, Debris avalanches at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 929, ERTS-1, a new window on our planet, pp.120-122.

Landsat-1 imaging of debris avalanches on Boulder Glacier

Frank, D., 1983, Origin, distribution, and rapid removal of hydrothermally formed clay at Mount Baker, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-E, 31 p.

Alteration in Sherman Crater and hazard from slope instability

Frank, D., and Krimmel, R. M., 1978, Mount Baker thermal activity continues; visual observations, April 1976 to August 1977: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v 59, n 4, pp.236, Apr 1978

Further reports of increased fumarolic activity following 1975 phreatic eruptions

Frank, D., and Krimmel, R. M., 1978, Volcanic effects on snow and ice on Mount Baker, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1100, pp.213.

Atmospheric precipitation; avalanches; fumaroles; geomorphology

Frank, D., and Krimmel, R. M., 1980, Progress report on chemical monitoring of the subglacial stream draining Sherman Crater, Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.61, no.6, pp.69, 05 Feb 1980

Monitoring chloride chemical composition in Boulder Creek and Boulder Glacier

Frank, D. and Post, A., 1976, Documentation of thermal changes by photographs of snow and ice features at Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.87.

Photo report on 1975 activity

Frank, D. and Post, A., 1976, Hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1000, pp.170-171

Hydrothermal alteration at Sherman crater, and attendant hazard

Frank, D., Post, A., and Friedman, J. D., 1975, Recurrent geothermally induced debris avalanches on Boulder Glacier, Mount Baker, Washington; Journal of Research, US Geological Survey, v. 3 n. 1, pp. 77-87

Small debris slides down Boulder Glacier from east rim of Sherman Crater

Frank, D., Meier, M.F., and Swanson, D.A., 1977, Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975- March 1976: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-A, 31 p.

Infrared study of proliferating fumaroles during and after 1975 activity

Fretwell, M. O., 1976, Water quality sampling and analysis activities related to Mount Baker's recent volcanic activity: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.89.

Hydrogeology, hydrology of Baker Lake and streams draining Sherman Crater

Friedman, J. D., and Frank, D. G., 1974, Thermal activity at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.55, no.4, pp.488.

Prescient account- just predates Sherman Crater phreatic eruptions

Fuller, S.R., 1980, Neoglaciation of Avalanche Gorge and the Middle Fork Nooksack River valley, Mt. Baker, Washington (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 68 p.

Rainbow Creek debris avalanche description; glaciation

Gardner, C.A., Scott, K.M., Miller, C.D., Myers, B., Hildreth, W., and Pringle, P.T., 1995, Potential Volcanic Hazards from Future Activity at Mount Baker, Washington: USGS Open-File Report 95-498

Hazards assessment

Gibbs, G., 1874, Physical geography of the north-western boundary of the United States (Part 2): Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York, v. 4 (for 1872), p.298-392.

Early accounts of 1843 eruptions, and lahar deposits in Boulder Creek.

Green, N.L., 1988, Basalt-basaltic andesite mixing at Mount Baker volcano, Washington: I. Estimation of mixing conditions: Journal of volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 34, p. 251-265.

Petrology of Sulphur Creek lava and magma chamber processes

Green, N. L., and Pearce, T.H., 1994, Plagioclase resorption textures associated with basalt-basaltic andesite mixing, Sulphur Creek Lava, Mount Baker Volcano, Washington: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, v.26, n.7, pp.292.

Petrology of Sulphur Creek lava

Harper, J. T., 1993, Glacier terminus fluctuations on Mount Baker, Washington, U.S.A., 1940-1990, and climatic variations: Arctic and Alpine Research, v. 25, n. 4, p. 332-340.

Ice thickness data and glacial changes

Heiken, G., and Wohletz, K., 1985, Volcanic Ash. University of California Press. 246 p.

Includes description of lithic ash vented during the 1976 phreatic eruptions

Hildreth, W., 1996, Kulshan Caldera: a Quaternary subglacial caldera in the North Cascades, Washington: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 108, p. 786-793.

Original and classic description of the 1.15 Ma caldera

Hildreth, W., Fierstein, J., and Lanphere, M., 2003, Eruptive history and geochronology of the Mount Baker volcanic field, Washington: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 115, p. 729-764.

Comprehensive Baker geologic study; first to describe the entire volcanic field; voluminous geochemistry database; high-quality radiometric ages

Hildreth, W., Lanphere, M., Champion, D.E., and Fierstein, J., 2004, Rhyodacites of Kulshan caldera, North Cascades of Washington: postcaldera lavas that span the Jaramillo: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 130, p. 227-264.

High quality paleomagnetic and radiometric dating study study; petrology of domes

Hill, K.S., 2007, Assessing microgravity changes at Mt. Baker, Washington, 1975-2006 (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 127 p.

Detailed report on gravity studies, 2005-6

Hill, K.S., Crider, J.G., and Williams-Jones, G., 2006, Significant gravity change detected at Mount Baker, Washington, 1975-2005: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, n. 5, p. 76

Preliminary report of gravitational decrease at Sherman Crater

Hill, K.S., Crider, J.G., and Williams-Jones, G., 2006, Assessing gravity changes at Mt. Baker, Washington, 1975-2006, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 87(52), fall meeting supplement, abstract V44A-03.

More information on gravity changes.

Hill, K. S., Crider, J. G., and Williams-Jones, G., 2007, Gravity increase observed at Mount Baker volcano, 1975-2006: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4., p. 65

Magmatic activity implicated in recent gravity changes

Hodge, B. E., and Crider, J. G., 2007, Edifice contraction from 1981 to 2006 of Mount Baker, Washington: Results from campaign GPS resurvey of EDM network: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 65

Recent shortening across the flanks of the volcano

Hyde, J.H. and Crandell, D.R., 1978, Post-glacial volcanic deposits at Mount Baker, Washington, and potential hazards from future eruptions: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-C.

The first in-depth study of Baker stratigraphy and volcanic hazards

James, E W, 1979, Emplacement of the Lake Ann Stock, North Cascades Range, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.11, no.3, p. 86.

Contact aureoles of a 2.5 Ma pluton on the east flank of the Mount Baker volcanic field

James, E.W., 1980, Geology and petrology of the Lake Ann stock and associated rocks (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 57 p.

Study of a 2.5 Ma pluton on the east flank of the Mt Baker volcanic field

Juday, J. E., 2007, A contemporary view of 1975-1976 elevated activity levels at the Mount Baker complex, Washington, and current community awareness of volcano hazards (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 219 p.

Study of volcano response in 1975-6; 2005-6 surveys of locals on hazards

Juday, J. E., 2007, Revisiting the 1975 phreatic activity and public perception of volcanic hazards: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p65

Phreatic activity in 1975; community perceptions of risk

Kiver, E. P., 1975, The first exploration of Mount Baker ice caves: Explorers Journal, vol.53, no.2, pp.84-87; Explorers Club, New York, NY, United States (USA)

Non-technical report of explorations in Sherman Crater steam caves

Kiver, E. P., 1978, Mount Baker's changing fumaroles: The Ore Bin, vol.40, no.8, pp.133-145

Fumaroles at Sherman Crater

Kiver, E. P., 1978, Geothermal ice caves and fumaroles, Mount Baker Volcano, 1974-77: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, vol.10, no.3, pp.112.

Ice caves, fumaroles associated with increased activity, 1974-1977

Kiver, E. P., and Steele, W. K., 1975, Geothermally-produced ice caves, Mount Baker, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.7, no.5, Rocky Mountain Section, 28th annual meeting, pp.617-618

Abstract published immediately prior to 1975 phreatic eruptions

Kiver, E. P., and Steele, W. K., 1976, Volcano monitoring utilizing geothermal ice caves at Mounts Baker and Rainier, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.89

Monitoring carbon dioxide, sulphide and hydrogen emissions

Krimmel, R. M., Frank, D., 1980, Aerial observations of Mount Baker, Washington; 1976-1979 update: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.61, no.6, pp.69, 05 Feb 1980.

Airborne survey of Sherman Crater, Boulder Glacier, Dorr Fumarole Field, heat flow, ejecta

Kovanen, D.J., 1996, Extensive late-Pleistocene alpine glaciation in the Nooksack River Valley, North Cascades, Washington: (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 186 p.

Purported Younger Dryas glaciation in Baker valleys

Kovanen, D.J., and Easterbrook, D.J., 1999, Holocene tephras and lahars from Mt. Baker, Washington: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, vol.31, no.6, pp.71

Preliminary to Kovanen and others, 2001

Kovanen, D.J., Easterbrook, D.J., and Thomas, P.A., 2001, Holocene eruptive history of Mount Baker, Washington: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 38, p. 1355-1366.

Brief description of post-edifice flank deposits

Kovanen, D. J., and Slaymaker, O., 2005, Fluctuations of the Deming Glacier and theoretical equilibrium line altitudes during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene on Mount Baker, Washington, USA: Boreas, vol.34, no.2, pp.157-175

Glacial fluctuations

Lewis, D. R., Scott, K. M., and Tucker, D. S., 2006, Long-Runout Debris Avalanche in Rainbow Creek at Mount Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 5, p. 75.

10.5 km non-eruptive avalanche on the east flank of Mount Baker

Lewis, D. R., Scott, K. M., and Tucker, D. S., 2007, Debris Avalanches in Rainbow Creek at Mount Baker, Washington- dating and matrix analysis: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 66.

Further report on 19th and 20th C debris avalanche in Rainbow Creek

Likarish, D. M., 1978, A magnetic profile of a Cascade volcano, Mount Baker, Washington (Masters thesis) Seattle, University of Washington, 59 p.

Geomagnetic survey of Mount Baker region

Malone, S. D., 1976, Seismic and gravity observations on Mount Baker Volcano: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, p. 88.

Gravity, seismic, tilt surveys at Sherman Crater in 1975

Malone, S. D., 1976, Deformation of Mount Baker volcano by hydrothermal heating: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.12, p.1016, Dec 1976.

Geophysical report on effects of 1975 fumarolic activity

Malone, S. D., 1977, Geophysical monitoring of Mount Baker; progress report: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.58, no.3, p.170, Mar 1977

Gravity, seismic, and gravimetric surveys at Baker after onset of 1975 thermal increase

Malone, S. D., 1979, Gravity changes accompanying increased heat emission at Mount Baker, Washington: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.6, no.3-4, pp.241-256,

Original gravitational study at Sherman Crater during 1975 phreatic eruptions

Malone, S. D., and Frank, D., 1975, Increased heat emission from Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.56, no.10, pp.679-685

Early report on 1975 activity

Malone, S. D., and Frank, D., 1976, Monitoring Mount Baker Volcano: Earthquake Information Bulletin (USGS), vol.8, no.2, pp.21-25

Early report on seismology during the 1975 phreatic eruptions

McGee, K.A., Doukas, M.P., and Gerlach, T.M., 2001, Quiescent hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide degassing from Mount Baker, Washington: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 28, p. 4479-4482.

Sherman crater vents 5.5 tons H2S and 187tons CO2 /day; gas scrubbing masks magmatic SO2?

McKeever, D., 1977, Volcanology and geochemistry of the south flank of Mount Baker, Cascade Range, Washington (Masters thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 126 p.

Early geochemical study of Black Buttes-age lavas at Baker Pass and Park Butte

McLane, J. E., Finkelman, R. B., and Larson, R. R., 1976, Mineralogical examination of particulate matter from the fumaroles of Sherman Crater, Mount Baker, Washington (State): Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.89.

Feldspar; pyroxenes, sulfides from Sherman Crater

McLane, J. E., Finkelman, R. B., and Larson, R. R., 1976, Particulate matter from the fumaroles of Sherman Crater, Mount Baker: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1000, pp.171, 1976

Similar to the above

Mierendorf, R. R., 1999, Precontact use of tundra zones of the Northern Cascades Range of Washington and British Columbia: Archaeology in Washington, v. 7, p. 3-23.

The 5740 BP BA tephra as archaeological dating tool.

Mullen, E., and McCallum, I. S., 2007, Petrology of Mount Baker: variable redox states of post-Kulshan caldera andesites: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 66

Petrology of Table Mountain and Coleman Pinnacle andesite

Nitsan, U., 1976, The effect of increased geothermal heat flux on the flow of Mount Baker Glaciers: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.89

Glacial geology and heat flux

Nolf, B., 1976, Tilt-bar stations on Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.88.

Geophysical surveys during 1975 activity

Poland, M. P., Crider, J. G., and Williams-Jones, G., 2007, Investigating the mechanism behind persistent degassing and thermal unrest at arc volcanoes: an example from Mount Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 65

Proposing Baker as a model of low-level unrest

Radke, L. F., Hegg, D. A., and Stith, J. L., 1976, An airborne study of the gaseous and particulate emissions from the volcanic vents on Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.88

Airborne aerosols, condensation nuclei from Sherman Crater fumaroles

Radke, L. F., Hobbs, P. V., and Stith, J. L., 1976, Airborne measurements of gases and aerosols from volcanic vents on Mount Baker: Geophysical Research Letters, vol.3, no.2, pp.93-96.

Aerosol and gas chemistry

Rohay, A. C. and Malone, S. D., 1977, Seismic velocity anomalies in the vicinity of Mount Baker, Washington: Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of America, vol.9, no.4, pp.490.

Seismology and velocity structure at Mount Baker

Rosenfeld, C. L., 1976, Operational aerial surveillance of the Sherman Crater area, Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.87-88.

Infrared survey of melting during 1975 activity at Sherman Crater.

Rosenfeld, C. L., and Schlicker, H. G., 1976, The significance of increased fumarolic activity at Mount Baker, Washington: The Ore Bin, vol.38, no.2, pp.23-35.

1975 activity report

Ryane, C., Osborn, G., Scott, K. M., Menounos, B., Davis, P. T., Reidel, J., Clague, J., and Koch, J., 2007, The use of tephra to reinterpret early Holocene glacial history at Mount Baker: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4.

Using SC tephra to show no early Holocene glacial advance

Sato, M., Malone, S. D., Moxham, R. M., and McLane, J. E., 1976, Monitoring of fumarolic gas at Sherman Crater, Mount Baker, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol.57, no.2, pp.88-89.

Chemical composition of Sherman Crater fumaroles

Sato, M., McLane, J.E., Moxham, R. H. and Malone, S. D., 1976, Remote monitoring of fumarolic gases, Mount Baker, Washington: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 1000, pp.171.

Gas monitoring

Scott, K.M., and Tucker, D.S., 2003, The Sherman Crater eruptive period at Mount Baker, North Cascades—A.D. 1843 to present—implications for reservoirs at the base of the volcano: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 35, no. 6, p. 132-16.

Description of events associated with 19th C eruptions; updated volcanic hazard assessment

Scott, K.M. and Tucker, D.S., 2004, Natural dams and floods of legend at Mount Baker Volcano, North Cascades—evidence from volcanic stratigraphy of the Sherman Crater eruptive period (AD 1843 to present): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, n. 5, p. 377.

Tephra set YP; 19th C Skagit River floods not caused by eruptions

Scott, K. M., and Tucker, D. S., 2006, Eruptive Chronology of Mount Baker Revealed by Lacustrine Facies of Glacial Lake Baker: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 5, p. 75.

Stratigraphy preserved in a large glacial lake in the Baker River valley; earliest description of Glacial Lake Baker

Scott, K.M., Hildreth, W., and Gardner, C., 2000, Mount Baker -- Living With An Active Volcano: USGS Fact Sheet 059-00

Volcano hazards associated with Mount Baker

Scott, K.M., Macias, J.L., Naranjo, J.A., Rodriguez, S., and McGeehin, J.P., 2001, Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains: mobility, hazard assessment, and mitigation strategies: US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1630.

Includes descriptions and ages of a number of Baker tephras (SP, SC, BA, OP)

Scott, K.M., Tucker, D.S., and McGeehin, J. P., 2003, Holocene History of Mount Baker volcano, North Cascades: XVI INQUA Congress Program with Abstracts, vol. 9, p. 51.

Outline of eruptive periods with stratigraphic units

Scott, K.M., Tucker, D.S., and McGeehin, J., 2003, Island of Fire in a Sea of Ice–The Growth of Mount Baker volcano and the Fraser Glaciation in the North Cascades: XVI INQUA Congress Program with Abstracts, p. 51.

Definition and description of the Carmelo Crater eruptive period

Shafer, D.C., 1980, Evaluation and implications of the thermal activity of Mount Baker,Washington from aerial photographs and infrared images: Proceedings of the Oregon Academy of Science, vol.16, pp.15, 1980

Aerial and infrared photographic analysis of recent thermal activity at Sherman Crater.

Smith, G.O., and Calkins, F.C., 1904, A geological reconaissance across the Cascade Range near the 49th parallel: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 235, 103 p.

Mentions Baker as a volcano

Stavert, L.W., 1971, A geochemical reconnaissance investigation of Mount Baker andesite (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 60 p.

Geochemistry for selected Baker area lava flows

Stearns, H. T., and Coombs, H. A., 1958, Report on lava bed area, Baker River project, upper Baker River Plant: Puget Sound Energy Company, Seattle, Washington. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation.

Technical report on drill cores into the Sulphur Creek basalt

Stearns, H.T., and Coombs, H.A., 1959, Quaternary history of the upper Baker Valley, Washington (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 70, p. 1788

Interbedded Sulphur Creek lava and lake sediments near Upper Baker dam site

Stinton, A.J., 1999, Sedimentology of the Middle Fork Mudflow, Western Washington, USA: Unpublished undergraduate thesis, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom, 53 p.

Grain size analysis of the largest Baker lahar

Swan, V.L., 1980, The petrogenesis of the Mount Baker volcanics, Washington (Ph.D. thesis): Pullman, Washington State University, 630 p.

Some useful geochem and petrology, though some data suspect

Symonds, R.B., Janik, C.J., Evans, W.C., Ritchie, B.E., Counce, D., Poreda, R.J., and Iven, M., 2003a, Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc volcanoes: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file report 03-435, 22 p.

Fumarole geochemistry and masking processes

Symonds, R.B., Poreda, R.J., Evans, W.C., Janik, C.J., Ritchie, B.E., 2003b, mantle and crustal sources of carbon, nitrogen, and noble gases in Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc volcanic gases: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file report 03-426, 26 p.

Fumarole geochemistry and processes

Tabor, R.W., Haugerud, R.A., Hildreth, W., and Brown, E.H., 2003, Geologic map of the Mount Baker 30 X 60 minute quadrangle, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Map I-2660, scale 1:100,000, 2 sheets.

Incorporates essentials of Hildreth’s Baker volcanic field mapping (Hildreth et al., 2003)

Tepper, J. H., Hildreth, W., 2004, The plutonic-volcanic connection in the Cascade arc: insights from the Mount Baker- Chilliwack area, Washington: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 223

Possible NE-ward extension of the Hannegan-Baker magmatic focus

Thomas, P., 1997, Late Quaternary glaciation and volcanism on the south flank of Mount Baker, Washington: (M.S. thesis); Bellingham, Western Washington University, 98 p.

Early description of some Baker tephras

Thomas, P. A, Easterbrook, D. J., Clark, P. U., 2000, Early Holocene glaciation on Mount Baker, Washington State, USA: Quaternary Science Reviews, vol.19, no.11, pp.1043-1046.

Use of tephra to define possible early Holocene glacial advance

Towns, J., Green, N., Powell, J., and Garcia, B., 2006, Complex Mafic Andesite Evolution at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 87(52), Fall Meet. Supplemnent, Abstract V23C-0635, vol.56, no.10, pp.679-685

Geochemistry of Sulphur Creek lava flow

Tucker, D.S., 2004, Geology and eruptive history of Hannegan caldera, North Cascades, Washington (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 125 p.

Thesis, precursor to Tucker, 2006 and Tucker et al., 2007

Tucker, D.S., 2006, Geologic map of the Pliocene Hannegan caldera, North Cascades, Washington: Geological Society of America Digital map and Chart Series 3 (accompanying text), 3 p., doi: 10.1130/2006.DMCH003.TXT.

Geologic map of Hannegan caldera, at the NE end of the magmatic progression that is currently focused at Mount Baker

Tucker, D.S., and Scott, K.M., 2004, Boulder Creek assemblage, Mount Baker, Washington: a record of the latest cone building eruptions: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 4, p. 85.

Stratigraphy of clastic flank deposits of the Carmelo Crater eruptive period.

Tucker, D.S., and Scott, K. M., 2006, A Magmatic Component in 19th Century Mount Baker Eruptions?: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 5, p. 75.

Description of very young ash from Sherman Crater eruptive period

Tucker, D S., Hildreth, W., Ullrich, T., and Friedman, R., 2007, Geology and complex collapse mechanisms of the 3.72 Ma Hannegan caldera, North Cascades, Washington, USA: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 119 p. 329-342.

Stratigraphy of Hannegan volcanics [part of the magmatic focus migration now centered at Baker;

Tucker, D. S., Scott, K. M., Foit, F. F., and Mierendorf, R. R., 2007, Age, distribution, and composition of Holocene tephras from Mount Baker, Cascade arc, Washington, USA: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 66.

Refined ages and character of Baker tephras, including 19th C set YP

Tucker, D.S., Scott, K.M., and Lewis, D.R., 2007, Field guide to Mount Baker volcanic deposits in the Baker River valley: Nineteenth century lahars, tephras, debris avalanches, and early Holocene subaqueous lava, in Stelling, P., and Tucker, D.S., eds., Floods, Faults, and Fire: Geological Field Trips in Washington State and Southwest British Columbia: Geological Society of America Field Guide 9, p. 83–98, doi: 10.1130/2007.fl d009(04).

Field trip to distal Baker stratigraphy on lower east flank

US Geological Survey, 1975, Increased volcanic activity of Mount Baker, Washington: Washington Geologic Newsletter, vol.3, no.3, pp.1-5, Jul 1975

1975 activity

Warren, S. N., Watters, R. J., and Tucker, D. S., 2006, Future Edifice Collapse as a Result of Active Hydrothermal Alteration and Geologic Structure at Mt. Baker, Washington: Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V53A-1746.

Measurement of structure and rock strength at Sherman Crater

Warren, S. N, and Watters, R. J., 2007, Influence of geologic structure and alteration strength on edifice failure mode at Mount Baker, Washington: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 66

Rock strength modeling at Sherman Crater

Werner, C., Evans, W. C., McGee, K. A., Doukas, M., Tucker, D., Bergfeld, D., Poland, M., and Crider, J.,2007, Quiescent degassing of Mount Baker volcano, Washington, USA: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 4, p. 65.

Magmatic gas present, consistent chemistry; no evidence for SO2 emissions

Westgate, J.A., Easterbrook, D.J., Naeser, N.D., and Carson, R.J., 1987, Lake Tapps tephra: An early Pleistocene stratigraphic marker in the Puget Lowland, Washington: Quaternary Research, v. 28, p. 340-355.

Age of distal ash erupted during collapse of Kulshan caldera

Whitney, J.D., 1889, In Easton, C.F., 1911, Whatcom County Museum of Natural History, Bellingham.

Second-hand report of 1843 activity; source of 1843 eruption date

Ziegler, C.B., 1986, Structure and petrology of the Swift Creek area, western North Cascades, Washington (M.S. thesis): Bellingham, Western Washington University, 191 p.

Description of a few distal andesitic outlier lava flows; geologic map of east flank of Baker

Some popular books and newspaper reports

Adams, W.C., 1919, Reminiscences of Mt. Baker: Mazama, v. 5, no. 4, p. 338-342

Mountaineering and local history

Bellingham Herald, 1975, Is Mount Baker about to blow its top? March 16 issue, page 1.

Account of beginning of March 1975 phreatic activity and volcanic hazards

Coleman, E.T., 1869, Mountaineering on the Pacific: Harper's New Monthly Magazine, v. 39, p. 793- 817.

First ascent of Baker

Coleman, E.T., 1877, Mountains and mountaineering in the Far West: Alpine Journal, v. VIII, n. LVII, p. 232-242.

Revised account of the first ascent of Baker

Concrete Herald, 1951, A history of the Upper Skagit Valley and its pioneer people; Anniversary Edition of June 21.

People involved with early exploration of Baker

Connelly, D., 1963, Mighty Joe Morovits: real-life Paul Bunyon: Sports Illustrated, January 7, p. 52-57.

Biography of early miner, mountain guide, and geology observor

Connelly, D., 1976, Morovits, the hospitable hermit of Baker Lake: Off Belay, v.28, August, p. 6-10.

Biography of early miner, and mountain guide

Easton, C.F., 1911-1931, Mount Baker, its trails and legends: unpublished scrapbook of accounts and memorabilia, in the archives of the Whatcom Museum of History and Art, Bellingham, Washington.

Extensive scrapbook collection of historical accounts of Baker mountaineering, local personalities such as J. Morovits, and natural history. Published in part on CD, ‘Mount Baker, its trails and legends’, Whatcom Museum of History and Art, Bellingham

Finkboner, C.E., 1867, Mount Baker a burning volcano: The Pacific Tribune (weekly official paper for Washington Territory, published in Olympia), issue of March 30.

Eruption account

Gibbs, G., 1855, Report of George Gibbs on a reconnaissance of the country lying upon Shoalwater Bay and Puget Sound: Reports of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economic Route for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, v. 1, p. 465-473

Gibbs, G., 1874, Physical geography of the north-western boundary of the United States [Part 2]: Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York, v. IV (for 1872), p. 298-392.

Description of Baker region geology

Kendrick, J. (trans.), 1991, The voyage of Sutil and Mexicana, 1792: the last Spanish exploration of the Northwest Coast of America: Spokane, Arthur H. Clark Co., p. 108.

Mentions naming of the mountain by the Spanish; possible eruption account?

Landes, H., 1907, Round-about Mount Baker: Mazama, v. 3, no. 1, p. 5-8.

Local natural history and climbing accounts

McNeil, F.H., 1930, Backtracking old trails: Mazama, v. 12, no. 12, p. 7-19.

Local natural history and climbing accounts

Majors, H.M., 1978, Mount Baker: A chronicle of its historic eruptions and first ascent:

Seattle, Northwest Press, 226 p.

Out of print review of historic accounts (many spurious), and reprint of Coleman’s first ascent account

Miles, J.C., 1984, Koma Kulshan: The story of Mount Baker: Seattle, The Mountaineers,

232 p.

Entertaining popular history of Mount Baker; mining and mountaineering history

Moore, A.R., 1934(?), Mount Baker eruptions (quotation in anon. article with that title): Bellingham Herald of Sunday, Nov. 4 [year 1934 based on probable year with that day and date; the article mentions Roth's History of Whatcom County (1926), so years previous to 1926 during Easton's compilation (beginning in 1911) with that day/date are excluded [no microfilm records of Sunday issues of Herald are known according to Center for Pacific Northwest Studies and Bellingham Library]

Plummer, F.G., 1893, Western volcanoes: chances that Western Washington may see disastrous eruptions: Tacoma Daily Ledger, Feb. 2-28, p. 3.

Plummer, F.G., 1898, Reported volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Puget Sound, etc., 1690 to 1896, in Holden, E.S., A catalog of earthquakes on the Pacific Coast, 1769 to 1897, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, n. 1087. P. 24-27.

Sholes, G.M., 1920, The Mount Baker outing of the Mazamas in 1909: Mazama, v. VI, no. 1, p. 26-32.

Early climbing accounts and mountain descriptions